Feast upon the Word Blog

A blog focused on LDS scriptures and teaching

The Remnant in the Book of Mormon: 3 Nephi 20-21, Regarding Isaiah

Posted by joespencer on April 11, 2010

In my last post on the remnant, I worked through the Micah texts that occupy Christ in 3 Nephi 20-21 (see also my preliminary post on 3 Nephi 20-21 that preceded that). Here I’d like to work through the distribution of Isaiah 52 in 3 Nephi 20-21, attempting to make some sense of what Christ is doing with this other Old Testament text. This, I hope, will allow me to get on to the work of dealing at last with 3 Nephi 20-21 quite directly.

Christ and Isaiah 52

In my preliminary post on 3 Nephi 20-21, I pointed out the complex place of Isaiah 52 in the larger Book of Mormon project—its entanglement with Abinadi and the priests of Noah, its fragmentation in that encounter, its being coupled by Abinadi with Isaiah 53, its being employed to postpone readings of Isaiah, its sudden return in 3 Nephi 15-16, and its more complex return in 3 Nephi 20-21. In the same post, I also spelled out some of the basics of the place of Isaiah in the Book of Mormon—the thematics drawn in turn from First and Second Isaiah, the curious status of the remnant in the Isaiah texts, the complicated intertwining of First and Second Isaiah in the small plates, the effective dismissal of Isaiah after Abinadi, the return of Isaiah in Third Nephi, and the stakes of the Nephite interpretation of Isaiah’s writings. Let me begin my discussion here by sorting out what parts of Isaiah 52 appear in 3 Nephi 20-21:

3 Nephi 20:11-12 = (a reference to) Isaiah 52:8-10 (see 3 Nephi 16:17-20)
3 Nephi 20:32-35 = Isaiah 52:8-10
3 Nephi 20:36-38 = Isaiah 52:1-3
3 Nephi 20:39-40 = Isaiah 52:6-7
3 Nephi 20:41-45 = Isaiah 52:11-15
3 Nephi 21:8-10 = Isaiah 52:13-15
3 Nephi 21:29 = Isaiah 52:12

Obviously, there is quite a bit of work to do sorting out what is happening here, particularly because Isaiah 52 is so completely fragmented. Before taking up individual passages as they appear in 3 Nephi 20-21, however, it would be well to work out a few exegetical basics regarding Isaiah 52 on its own terms.

It is perhaps most common to break up Isaiah 52 into five distinct parts:

verses 1-2 (poetic address to Zion)
verses 3-6 (prose discussion of slavery)
verses 7-10 (poetic word regarding redemption)
verses 11-12 (poetic command to depart)
verses 13-15 (beginning of the fourth “servant song,” which continues through the whole of Isaiah 53)

The first of these (verses 1-2) summons Zion to holiness (remember that Jacob had quoted these verses in connection with his quotation of Isaiah 50-51 in 2 Nephi 7-8). Verse 3 then provides a prose explanation of the situation, an explanation then expanded by verses 4-5 (note that some commentators associate verse 3 directly with verses 1-2, separating out verses 4-5 or 4-6 as a later expansion). Verse 6, the last of the four prose verses, adds the element of the divine name to the story: the holy city will be associated with the holy name of God. There then follows the obvious unit of verses 7-10 (the four verses presented to Abinadi by Noah’s priests), in which the announcement is made to Jerusalem that the enemy has fallen and the city has been redeemed (everyone begins to rejoice). The obvious consequence follows in verses 11-12: the people are told to depart from their captivity in order to return to Zion. Finally, the fourth and most famous “servant song” begins with verses 13-15, as a kind of prelude to Isaiah 53.

This summary already allows for some clarifying remarks about the handling of Isaiah 52 in the Book of Mormon:

(1) That Jacob quotes just verses 1-2 at the end of his quotation of Isaiah 50-51 in 2 Nephi 7-8 makes clear that the Book of Mormon at times recognizes the distinct unit these two verses form. That Christ, on the other hand, quotes verses 1-3 together as a unit makes equally clear that the Book of Mormon also recognizes the role (the prose of) verse 3 plays in clarifying verses 1-2 specifically.
(2) The Book of Mormon entirely—whether in Jacob’s quotation, in Abinadi’s discussion, or in Christ’s discourse—ignores verses 4-5, perhaps suggesting that they were in fact a later addition or expansion. This may or may not be evidence that the Nephites had an Isaiah text that did not have these two verses in it.
(3) That the priests of Noah quoted verses 7-10 exactly to Abinadi makes clear that those four verses were also recognized as a relatively independent unit.
(4) Christ, of course, is willing to divide the unit of verses 7-10 differently, but not, in light of the foregoing point, in ignorance of the four-verse-unit. On the one hand, Christ picks up the importance of the divine name in verse 6 and associates it with the announcement of redemption in verse 7 (taking verses 6-7 as a unit). Though this might be somewhat unique (though this possibility is hardly absent from the commentaries), it certainly makes hermeneutical sense. On the other hand, Christ takes up verses 8-10 as a unit, perhaps following Abinadi (who had discussed, in response to the priests, verses 8-10 at length before and separate from verse 7). This division is still more intuitive: though verse 7 obviously reports the announcement that results in the response of verses 8-10, it is clear that verses 8-10 collectively describe the response of exiled Israel.
(5) The only point regarding which there seems to be a sharp difference between the Nephite and the current scholarly approaches to Isaiah 52 regards verses 11-15. Christ, it seems, understands verses 11-15 to be a single unit. He thus divides verses 13-15 from the fourth servant song with which they are universally associated today. And, moreover, He associates verses 11-12 with that severed interlude, a move nobody seems to make today. However, it might be pointed out that the Nephite association of Isaiah 48 with Isaiah 49 (a move that also seems somewhat odd in light of contemporary scholarship) makes a similar move by associating an exultant plea with Israel to leave their exile (48:20-22) with a short passage about the Lord’s servant (the second servant song at the beginning of 49). Moreover, it should of course be recognized that the very chapter divisions in Isaiah itself betray the fact that people in earlier periods of history understood the last verses of Isaiah 52 to be more directly connected with the material preceding them than with the material following them in chapter 53. Christ’s appropriation reflects a rather traditional approach to the text, one that cannot simply be dismissed because modern scholarship employs another.
(6) Actually, things may be a bit more difficult than this last point suggests. In 3 Nephi 21, Christ appropriates Isaiah 52:13-15 independently of His treatment of Isaiah 52:12, perhaps suggesting that He (and/or the Nephites) recognize that Isaiah verse 12 is separate from verses 13-15. Also interestingly, the treatment of Isaiah 52:12 is used as an introduction to Isaiah 54 (it appears as the last verse before Isaiah 54 is quoted), as if Christ recognizes that His “dismissal” (of sorts) of Isaiah 53 calls for creating a bridge between Isaiah 52:12 and Isaiah 54:1, something modern scholars could only approve. At any rate, there is reason to suggest that Christ is, even as He explores other possibilities, in large part aware of the divisions in Isaiah 52 generally recognized by scholars today.

Taken together, these several comments suggest that the Nephites—and Christ as the Nephites’ guest—are rather careful in their approach to Isaiah 52: the fragmentation of the text is not sloppily or ignorantly done. But in order to make this clearest, it is necessary to see how the fragmentation is worked into the discourse of 3 Nephi 20-21 itself.

Isaiah 52 in 3 Nephi 20-21

First, it should be noted that the whole discourse of 3 Nephi 20-21 begins with a reference to (but not a re-quotation of) Isaiah 52:8-10. This is because These three verses had been quoted at the end of 3 Nephi 16, at the conclusion of the sermon Christ offered to the Nephites on the first day of His visit. There, the verses had been quoted without any explanation, and in fact had been followed by Christ’s recognition that the people could not understand His words (see the first verses of 3 Nephi 17). In 3 Nephi 20:10-12, Christ announces that He now has to finish the commandment concerning the Nephites—that is, get back to what He had been talking about in 3 Nephi 15-16—and so He reminds the crowd that He had “said that when the words of Isaiah should be fulfilled . . . then is the fulfilling of the covenant which the Father hath made unto his people, O house of Israel.”

This return to Isaiah, however, does not lead immediately into a discussion of Isaiah 52. Rather, it leads more directly into the first quotation of Micah (of Micah 5:8-9 and Micah 4:12-13 in 3 Nephi 20:16-19). Immediately following this, interestingly, Christ makes a quick reference to Deuteronomy 18 (in 3 Nephi 20:23), a passage that both Nephi and Abinadi had dealt with, and then follows it with a word or two about what the prophets have done. This is in turn followed by a couple of references to the Abrahamic covenant, with quotations of Genesis 12 (3 Nephi 20:25-27), quotations that set up Christ’s discussion of the Father’s eventually remembering that covenant. This, finally, leads to the first quotations of Isaiah 52, starting in 3 Nephi 20:32.

Importantly, when Christ first comes to Isaiah 52 in 3 Nephi 20, He begins by quoting precisely the three verses He had quoted in 3 Nephi 16 and to which He had made reference at the beginning of His discourse in 3 Nephi 20: Isaiah 52:8-10 (3 Nephi 20:32-35). The way this work in the texts suggests that everything between 3 Nephi 20:12 and 3 Nephi 20:32 is meant to flesh out and clarify what Christ had laid out during His discourse in 3 Nephi 15-16, supplementing what He had said there with so much more detailed information. Also crucial to note—though I’ll only deal with the details further along—is the fact that Christ’s quotation of Isaiah 52:8-10 in 3 Nephi 20 differs sharply from His quotation of the passage in 3 Nephi 16 (as well as from the way the text reads directly in Isaiah 52).

Having begun, as early as 3 Nephi 16, with Isaiah 52:8-10, it is no surprise that Christ takes up these verses before anything else in Isaiah 52. But immediately after quoting verses 8-10 in 3 Nephi 20, Christ turns to the first verses of Isaiah 52. It is almost as if His coming back to Isaiah 52:8-10 allowed Him to assert that the whole of Isaiah 52 was relevant to His topic. Interestingly, He introduces His quotation of the first part of Isaiah 52 with the phrase: “And then shall be brought to pass that which is written.” It seems, then, that Christ’s point is to say that the privileged text of Isaiah 52:8-10 justifies paying attention to the whole of the chapter, as if the fulfillment of a privileged portion of Isaiah 52 opens the way to the whole of Isaiah 52.

So it is that 3 Nephi 20:36-40 quotes Isaiah 52:1-7, bringing the whole of what precedes the already-quoted Isaiah 52:8-10 to bear on the quotation of the latter text. Of course, as already noted above, Christ’s quotation of Isaiah 52:1-7 leaves out verses 4-5, perhaps because these verses are a distraction, or perhaps because they are simply prose, or perhaps because they were late additions to the text, or perhaps because . . . . At any rate, it seems that Christ wants to fill out the quotation of Isaiah 52:8-10 by “getting to” Isaiah 52:7 (the other verse the priests of Noah had associated quite directly with Isaiah 52:8-10), and so He employs the remainder of (what He regards as) the text of Isaiah 52:1-7.

Interestingly, Christ then makes a brief transitional statement (“And then shall a cry go forth”) and quotes the rest of Isaiah 52 (verses 11-15), that is, all of Isaiah 52 that follows verses 8-10. The pattern by this point is quite clear. The privileged text in Isaiah 52 is Isaiah 52:8-10. The culminating fulfillment of that prophecy—which had been used as the climax of the 3 Nephi 15-16 discourse—calls for a full quotation of Isaiah 52, which Christ accomplishes by following Isaiah 52:8-10 by a quotation first of Isaiah 52:1-7 (minus, of course, verses 4-5) and second of Isaiah 52:11-15. Isaiah 52:8-10 thus cuts Isaiah 52 into two distinct halves for Christ, splitting the event to be brought to pass (Isaiah 52:1-7) from the cry that will go forth (Isaiah 52:11-15).

At least, that is what seems to be at work in basic outline. Things get more complicated when one turns to the details, but I won’t deal with the details until a little further along.

Finally, it is worth noting that relatively little of Isaiah 52 appears in 3 Nephi 21. A kind of expansive commentary on Isaiah 52:14-15 occupies 3 Nephi 21:8-10, and 3 Nephi 21:29 employs a full quotation of Isaiah 52:12. It is interesting to note, though, that Christ comes back, in 3 Nephi 21, not to Isaiah 52:8-10, as one might expect, but to Isaiah 52:11-15, to the second half of the split Isaiah 52. These details will have to be explored further along.

The details, at last

To begin with, Isaiah 52:8-10. Let me put three different texts side by side. The text farthest to the left is the text as it appears in both Isaiah 52:8-10 and Mosiah 12:22-24 (they are identical, except for punctuation). The text in the middle is 3 Nephi 16:18-20. The text farthest to the right is the text as it appears in 3 Nephi 20:32-35. “[. . .]” means that there is nothing in that text where another text has something. I’ve highlighted the points of difference in bold:

Thy watchmen shall lift up the voice; … Thy watchmen shall lift up the voice; … Then shall their watchmen lift up their voice,
with the voice together shall they sing; … with the voice together shall they sing, … and with the voice together shall they sing;
for they shall see eye to eye … for they shall see eye to eye … for they shall see eye to eye.
when the Lord shall bring again Zion; … when the Lord shall bring again Zion. … [. . .]
[. . .] … [. . .] … Then will the Father gather them together again,
[. . .] … [. . .] … and give unto them Jerusalem for the land of their inheritance.
Break forth into joy; … Break forth into joy, … Then shall they break forth into joy—
sing together … sing together, … Sing together,
ye waste places of Jerusalem; … ye waste places of Jerusalem; … ye waste places of Jerusalem;
for the Lord hath comforted his people, … for the Lord hath comforted his people, … for the Father hath comforted his people,
he hath redeemed Jerusalem; … he hath redeemed Jerusalem. … he hath redeemed Jerusalem.
The Lord hath made bare his holy arm … The Lord hath made bare his holy arm … The Father hath made bare his holy arm
in the eyes of all the nations, … in the eyes of all the nations; … in the eyes of all the nations;
and all the ends of the earth … and all the ends of the earth … and all the ends of the earth
shall see the salvation of our God. … shall see the salvation of God. … shall see the salvation of the Father;
[. . .] … [. . .] … and the Father and I are one.

Given that there is no difference between the passage as it appears in Isaiah and as it appears in Mosiah, it seems that the brass plates followed the text as we know it in the Old Testament. Notice also that the only change made to the Isaiah text in 3 Nephi 16 is the elision of the word “our” in “shall see the salvation of our God,” a change that makes sense if Christ is claiming the text as His own (He drops the inclusive “our” in order simply to identify God as God). The only place where the text is reworked significantly is in 3 Nephi 20. And there the changes are many.

Most of the changes in 3 Nephi 20 make good sense. In Mosiah 12 and 3 Nephi 16, the text is quoted as a text, is cited as a text from a known source. In Mosiah 12, the priests simply quote it in order to ask Abinadi what it means. In 3 Nephi 16, Christ quotes it simply in order to announce that it will have been fulfilled at a certain point (though His slight emendation of “our God” to “God” seems to imply some kind of appropriation and not just quotation). But in 3 Nephi 20, Christ simply weaves Isaiah’s words right into His own discussion. He never mentions that it is Isaiah that He is quoting or alluding to; He never mentions that this is a question of what has been written; He simply takes up the text into His own discourse.

A major consequence of this appropriation is that all of the second person verbs (the “thy’s,” the “ye’s,” and the imperative forms) are turned into third person plural verbs (into “they’s,” mostly): “thy watchmen” becomes “their watchmen”; “Break forth into joy” becomes “Then shall they break forth into joy.” A second major consequence is that the whole thing is introduced by the added word “then,” a word that contextualizes the appropriated text within a larger narrative Christ is telling, and a fact that seems to be the motivation for the entire omission of the phrase “when the Lord shall bring again Zion”: since the “when” of all this is introduced in the preceding verses in 3 Nephi 20, there is no need for the explanation of the “when” in the phrase “when the Lord shall bring again Zion.” A third major consequence is that Christ adds a whole verse into the middle of the appropriated text, splitting up what are in this text two third-person descriptions of the rejoicing: “Then will the Father gather them together again, and give unto them Jerusalem for the land of their inheritance.” Finally, the fact that the narrative within which Christ takes up this appropriation employs as its major actor the Father, all references to “the Lord” are replaced by “the Father,” a replacement that seems to motivate the addition at the end of the quotation of Christ’s explanatory “and the Father and I are one.”

Consequences (for meaning) of these consequences (of narrative): (1) the dialogical nature of the Isaianic text is lost in the narrativization or third-person-ization of the passage; (2) actions that in the original text have to be commanded become, as it were, automatic; (3) the essentially dramatic or even liturgical character of the original is, so to speak, flattened, though it is flattened into, of all things, a prophecy; (4) the original commandment to rejoice becomes not only a narrative description of rejoicing, but also becomes parallel to the other narrative description of rejoicing, parallel also in that both descriptions follow non-Isaianic texts describing the gathering; (5) the need to replace “the Lord” with “the Father” embroils the entire text in a theological complexity, one that ties the text all the way back to 3 Nephi 11.

All of this is, obviously, immensely complex. It will receive thematic treatment when I finally get on to my post on the thematic content of 3 Nephi 20-21 (that is, when I finally get to the post where I’ll deal specifically with the remnant again).

For now, let me deal briefly with the details of the other Isaiah 52 passages in 3 Nephi 20. Here is Isaiah 52:1-3, 6-7 set side by side with 3 Nephi 20:36-40. As usual, the changes are marked in bold:

[. . .] … And then shall be brought to pass that which is written:
AWAKE, awake; put on thy strength, O Zion; … Awake, awake again, and put on thy strength, O Zion;
put on thy beautiful garments, O Jerusalem, the holy city: … put on thy beautiful garments, O Jerusalem, the holy city,
for henceforth there shall no more come into thee … for henceforth there shall no more come into thee
the uncircumcised and the unclean. … the uncircumcised and the unclean.
Shake thyself from the dust; … Shake thyself from the dust;
arise, and sit down, O Jerusalem: … arise, sit down, O Jerusalem;
loose thyself from the bands of thy neck, … loose thyself from the bands of thy neck,
O captive daughter of Zion. … O captive daughter of Zion.
For thus saith the LORD, … For thus saith the Lord:
Ye have sold yourselves for nought; … Ye have sold yourselves for naught,
and ye shall be redeemed without money. … and ye shall be redeemed without money.
[. . .] … Verily, verily, I say unto you,
Therefore my people shall know my name: … that my people shall know my name;
therefore they shall know in that dayyea, in that day they shall know
that I am he that doth speak: … that I am he that doth speak.
behold, it is I. … [. . .]
[. . .] … And then shall they say:
How beautiful upon the mountains are the feet … How beautiful upon the mountains are the feet
of him that bringeth good tidings, … of him that bringeth good tidings unto them,
that publisheth peace; …. that publisheth peace;
that bringeth good tidings of good, … that bringeth good tidings unto them of good,
that publisheth salvation; … that publisheth salvation;
that saith unto Zion, Thy God reigneth! … that saith unto Zion: Thy God reigneth!

Here are Isaiah 52:11-15 and 3 Nephi 20:41-45, with the same conventions:

[. . .] … And then shall a cry go forth:
Depart ye, depart ye, go ye out from thence, … Depart ye, depart ye, go ye out from thence,
touch no unclean thing; … touch not that which is unclean;
go ye out of the midst of her; … go ye out of the midst of her;
be ye clean, that bear the vessels of the LORD. … be ye clean that bear the vessels of the Lord.
For ye shall not go out with haste, … For ye shall not go out with haste
nor go by flight: … nor go by flight;
for the LORD will go before you; … for the Lord will go before you,
and the God of Israel will be your rereward. … and the God of Israel shall be your rearward.
Behold, my servant shall deal prudently, … Behold, my servant shall deal prudently;
he shall be exalted and extolled, … he shall be exalted and extolled
and be very high. … and be very high.
As many were astonied at thee; … As many were astonished at thee—
his visage was so marred more than any man, … his visage was so marred, more than any man,
and his form more than the sons of men: … and his form more than the sons of men—
So shall he sprinkle many nations; … So shall he sprinkle many nations;
the kings shall shut their mouths at him: … the kings shall shut their mouths at him,
for that which had not been told them shall they see; … for that which had not been told them shall they see;
and that which they had not heard shall they consider. … and that which they had not heard shall they consider.

It should be noticed that these quotations are almost exact. A few slight changes (a “shall” for a “will,” or a rearrangement of the word order in a phrase) mark the only real alterations to the text itself. The largest difference is, of course, simply the fact that the several quotations are introduced with added phrases (“And then shall be brought to pass that which is written”; “And then shall they say”; “And then shall a cry go forth”). That all of these quotations are introduced with a recognition of “that which is written” makes sense of the fact that so little of the text has been altered: this is less an appropriation than a simple quotation.

But if this is straightforward enough, let me get the last details on the table: the snippets of Isaiah 52 that reappear in 3 Nephi 21. Here, things are much more tampered with. 3 Nephi 21:8-10 quotes bits and pieces of Isaiah 52:14-15 (3 Nephi 20:44-45), but completely out of order (quotations of Isaiah in bold):

And when that day shall come, it shall come to pass that kings shall shut their mouths; for that which had not been told them shall they see; and that which they had not heard shall they consider [Isaiah 52:15, but omitting the first phrase in the verse]. For in that day, for my sake shall the Father work a work, which shall be a great and a marvelous work among them; and there shall be among them those who will not believe it, although a man shall declare it unto them. But behold, the life of my servant [a word from Isaiah 52:13] shall be in my hand; therefore they shall not hurt him, although he shall be marred [a word from Isaiah 52:14] because of them. Yet I will heal him, for I will show unto them that my wisdom is greater than the cunning of the devil.

Here the material from Isaiah has been caught up into a story that will have to be clarified in another post (with reference to an excellent study of these chapters by Gaye Strathearn). For the moment, let me conclude this post, at last, by dealing briefly with 3 Nephi 21:29 and its appropriation of Isaiah 52:12 (= 3 Nephi 20:42). Here let me set them side by side again (Isaiah 52:12 to the left; 3 Nephi 21:29 to the right) with the changes in bold:

[. . .] … And they shall go out from all nations;
For ye shall not go out with haste … and they shall not go out in haste,
nor go by flight; … nor go by flight,
for the Lord will go before you, … for I will go before them, saith the Father,
and the God of Israel shall be your rearward. … and I will be their rearward.

Here again, of course, the second person has been replaced with the third person, pursuant to the addition of the “And they shall go out from all nations” bit that introduces the 3 Nephi 21 version. And also, again, “the Lord” (as well as “the God of Israel”) has been replaced with “the Father,” though in a somewhat trickier way (“the Lord” and “the God of Israel” are actually replaced with “I,” but then the text adds “saith the Father”). In short, the appropriation of the text here is after the fashion of the appropriation of Isaiah 52:8-10 in 3 Nephi 20:32-35. For now, let me leave things at that. I’ll try, at last, to deal with themes in my next (last?) post on the remnant.

10 Responses to “The Remnant in the Book of Mormon: 3 Nephi 20-21, Regarding Isaiah”

  1. Donald said

    I’m curious about the “marred servant” the Savior refers to….. do you have any thoughts or insights about this?

  2. joespencer said

    Hey Donald. I’ll be discussing this in my next post, but I can tell you in advance that I basically agree with Gaye Strathearn’s reading: the servant in 3 Nephi 21 is, of all things, the Book of Mormon itself. See her paper here.

    • Donald said

      I see. Thank you Joseph. By the way, have you read any of Avraham Gileadi’s work? eg. “The Literary Message of Isaiah”

      • joespencer said

        I own but not have read Gileadi’s work. Or rather, I’ve read only bits and pieces from a few of his books, but not read any of them through all the way. I know Robert C. has read a fair bit of his stuff, however, and might be able to speak to issues surrounding Gileadi better.

  3. […] The Remnant in the Book of Mormon: 3 Nephi 20-21, Regarding Isaiah […]

  4. Robert C. said

    Joe, do you have any particular thoughts on Jacob’s appropriation of Second Isaiah? I’m (obviously) interested in his use of Isaiah 55 in chapter 9, after quoting Isaiah 50-52:1-2. This task of making sense of what is going on in the Book of Mormon’s use of Isaiah, in the small plates, with Abinadi, and with Christ, seems all curiously bound together in something larger than I can make sense of. Your work here is, of course, enormously helpful. Hopefully over the next few months I’ll be able to start contributing in a meaningful way to this larger task….

    • joespencer said

      Robert, the present (and apparently to-be-published) version of my book is about nothing other than this “something larger” you’re describing. Shall I send you a copy of the ms.?

      I’ll say, however, that I don’t deal in any detail there with Jacob’s appropriation of Isaiah 55, nor have I done any serious work on that appropriation anywhere. I’m interested, though, in taking a look at it (maybe I can dedicate some work to it when I’ve finished my last remnant post?).

      • Robert C. said

        Yes regarding the ms., esp. since an electronic copy will allow me to listen to it. And I’ll be anxious to see what’s become of the earlier version I looked at. Thx!

  5. […] The Remnant in the Book of Mormon: 3 Nephi 20-21, Regarding Isaiah […]

  6. […] on the theme of the remnant in scripture. (See here, here, here, here, here, here, here, here, here, here, and here.) That crucial theme, worked out over the whole book, is introduced right here, and […]

Sorry, the comment form is closed at this time.

 
%d bloggers like this: